Studies about fish assemblages in Brazilian streams have grown in recent years, however, it remains unclear whether this increase is followed by increments in the diversity of addressed topics and theoretical frameworks adopted by researchers. We performed a systematic search for Brazilian studies on stream fish assemblages recording study region, publication year, objectives, and spatial and temporal scales adopted. The number of studies is unevenly distributed among regions. Most papers describe the general structure of local fish assemblages and their scientific objectives have not varied through time. Studies have been conducted mainly at small temporal and spatial scales, though the latter is increasing over time. We argue for the need of focusing on recently developed ecological theories and frameworks, and expanding the temporal and spatial scales of studies. These changes will improve regional and local conservation policies, and the visibility of aquatic Brazilian research in the global scientific community.